DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.25063/21457735.220

Efectividad a 60 meses de un programa de cepillado dental en escolares

Juan David Reyes Ávila, Olga Patricia López Soto, Brenda Yuliana Herrera Serna, Martha Paola Rodríguez Acuña, María del Pilar Blanco Uribe, Juan David Muñoz Alvarado, Paola del Pilar Hernández Betancur

Resumen


Objetivo. Determinar la efectividad a 60 meses de un programa de cepillado dental en escolares.

Métodos. Este estudio observacional longitudinal, usó un muestreo probabilístico aleatorio y consideró 160 escolares en cada grupo. Los escolares  intervenidos (EI) estaban inscritos en el programa de salud pública de una entidad universitaria.  El programa realizó entrenamiento teórico y práctico en higiene oral, hábitos dietéticos saludables y práctica de cepillado diaria. La recolección de la información se realizó con examinadores calibrados y ajenos a la investigación. Se aplicaron los índices de habilidad de cepillado de Simmons Smith y Gelbie  (ISSG) (porcentaje de superficies dentales cepilladas), de placa de Silness y Löe (IPSL) y Gingival de Löe y Silness (IGLS). El análisis estadístico descriptivo incluyó medidas de tendencia central y el comparativo la prueba t y  U de Man Whitney.

Resultados. El promedio del índice de placa fue para EI=0,41 EC=0,51, IGSL (EI=0,28 y EC=0,36): En el índice ISSG el porcentaje de superficies  cepilladas fue mayor en el EI=82,18 que en los EC=79,9.  Hubo diferencia  estadísticamente  significativa   sólo para  la placa dental en palatino de anteriores superiores (EI=0,162; EC=0,503; p<0,05).

Conclusión: Los escolares intervenidos registraron promedios menores en los índices de placa dental, gingivales y de habilidad de cepillado tanto globales como por superficie. Aunque no hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas con los escolares de control, el resultado clínico se considera importante.

 

Palabras clave


placa dental;índice gingival,;cepillado dental.

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